6.2 Kingdom Details 2


This covers the history of the split kingdoms


At the end of the Kingdom period we see a divided Israel, a Northern Kingdom known as Israel (and also called Samaria to not be confused with wider Israel) and a Southern Kingdom known as Judah.

Northern Kingdom :

Mostly covered in 2 Kings 1-17

Israel had mostly unrighteous kings.  The northern king (Pekah) threatened Ahaz (king of Judah) who sent for help to the king of Assyria. Assyria stepped in and conquered Israel.

Some datings put the initial siege at 740 BC, others at 733 BC. However the final conquest was started in 720 BC and completed in 722 BC

732 BC : Pekah of Israel threatened Jerusalem (capital of Judah).  Ahaz, king of Judah, appealed to Tiglath-Pileser III, the king of Assyria, for help. After Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser,  Tiglath-Pileser sacked Damascus and most of Israel.

733 BC : And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day. (1 Chronicles 5:26)

733 BC : In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and he took Ijon, and Abel Beth Maacah, and Janoah, and Kedesh and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria. (2 Kings 15:29)

720 BC : And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea (King of Israel) : for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison. Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. (2 Kings 17:3–6)

722 BC : In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. (2 Kings 17:3–6)

Northern Israel / Samaria is removed as a kingdom, peoples are deported and only a remnant remain. The Assyrian kings put foreigners into the land.

Southern Kingdom:

Mostly covered in 2 Kings 18-25

The story of Judah (the southern kingdom)  one of war and treaties, betrayal and changing allies. When Rehoboam was king and the kingdom split, Rehoboam and the kings after him fought against northern Israel to try to win it back .They were unsuccessful but the resulting battles were a heavy cost, with over 500 000 men killed in one battle alone.

During this time the Egyptian kingdom was also a powerful player. Battles were fought to stop them invading as well as against Israel.

870 BC : Jehoshaphat became king and pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence with Israel.

715 BC : Hezekiah becames sole ruler and forms a treaty with Egypt to stand against Assyria, a growing power. This fails to protect him and the Assyrian army lays seige. Hezekiah pays tribute but the Assyrians lay siege to Jerusalem anyway. 2 kings 18.

686 BC : Judah is a vassal of the Assyrians but still retains a kingdom.

641 BC : Josiah is king. Assyria is in decline, Babylon has not gained military ascendancy and Egypt is still recovering from being attacked by the Assyrians. Judah is an independent state. The Egyptions march into Judah to assist the Assyrians. Josiah is killed, the Egyptions defeated and the Assyrian state is taken over by the Babylonians.

608 BC : Josiah’s son is deposed by Egypt and Jehoiakim rulesas a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. however when he hears the Babylonians have defeated Egypt in a battle he switches allegiance to Babylonia and stops paying tribute. The Babylonians are defeated by the Egyptians in a battle and he stops paying tribute to the Babylonians.

599  BC : The Babylonians lay siege to Jerusalem

597 BC : Nebuchadnezzar  the king of the Babylonians succeeds in his siege, pillages the temple and carts off people and treasure.  He appoints Zedekiah, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a tributary of Babylon.

589 BC : Zedekiah revolts against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra. In 589 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged Jerusalem.

586 BC : THe siege is successful. After killing all of Zedekiah’s sons, Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah to Babylon, putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. Much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffers a steep decline of both economy and population.